Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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(21,303 words)

, a sovereign State, of the Muslim religion, for the most part Arabic-speaking, situated at the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent.


The structure of ʿIrāḳ paradoxically derives its originality from the fact that it forms part of a large geographical block of territory. From the Arabo-Syrian …

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Miquel, A., Brice, W.C., Sourdel, D., Aubin, J., Holt, P.M., Kelidar, A., Blanc, H., MacKenzie, D.N., Pellat, Ch., Laoust, H. et al., “ʿIrāḳ”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 18 January 2021 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0376>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

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