Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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(1,771 words)

, as a theological term meaning immunity from error and sin, is attributed by Sunnīs to the prophets and by S̲h̲īʿīs also to the imāms. In early Islam moral failures and errors of Muḥammad were freely mentioned, although there was an inconsistent tendency to minimize the shorteomings of the Prophet and in particular to deny that he had ever participated in the worship of idols. The term and the concept of ʿiṣma do not occur in the Ḳurʾān or in canonical Sunnī Ḥadīt̲h̲ . They were first used by the Imāmī S̲h̲īʿa, who at least since the first half of the 2nd/8th century maintai…

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Madelung, W. and E. Tyan, “ʿIṣma”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 09 August 2022 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_3643>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

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