(Ḳoyunlu Ḥiṣār), more properly Ḳoyun Ḥiṣār , the name for two Byzantine fortresses: 1. identical with Baphaeon, to the north-east of Izmīd, the site of the first battle won by ʿOt̲h̲mān I against the Byzantines in 1301; 2. a fortress on the Saḳārya river [q.v.] to the north-east of Bursa near Dinboz, taken by Ork̲h̲ān during a campaign in 1324-5.
ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳpas̲h̲azāde, Taʾrīk̲h̲, tr. R. F. Kreutel, Graz, etc. 1959, 43, 63, map I
H. İnalcik, The Ottoman empire—the classical age 1300-1600, London 1973, 6, 55
D. E. Pitcher, An historical geography of the Ottoma…