Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Marāfiḳ
(311 words)

(a.), sing, marfiḳ , “bribes, douceurs”, literally, “benefits, favours”. In mediaeval Islamic society, various terms in addition to this are found, such as ras̲h̲wa / ris̲h̲wa , manāla , d̲j̲aʿāla , hadiyya , etc., with varying degrees of euphemism, for the inducements given either directly to a potential bestower of benefits or as an inducement for a person’s intercession or mediation ( s̲h̲afāʿa , wasāṭa ).

In the ʿAbbāsid caliphate, this form of bribery became institutionalised in the caliphate of al-Muḳtadir (295-320/908-32 [q.v.]), when the vizier Ibn al-Furāt [q.v.] institute…

Cite this page
Bosworth, C.E., “Marāfiḳ”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 08 December 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_4950>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007



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