Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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(3,742 words)

(a.) treaty, agreement: 1. In earlier times: See for this, ʿahd ; baḳṭ ; imtiyāzāt .

2. In modern times. We find muʿāhede or muʿāhedet in Ottoman Turkish: moʿāhede , moʿāhedat , in Persian and Urdu.

The Ottoman official term for “treaty” was either muʿāhede, borrowed from the Arabic, or ʿahd-nāme , borrowed from the Persian. At the height of Ottoman power, most treaties constituted one-sided proclamations, phrased as expressions of the Sultan’s own will to grant privileges to foreign states or their subjects. These were generally called ʿahd-nāme [see imtiyāzāt , esp. at iii, 1189 ff.…

Cite this page
Landau, J.M., “Muʿāhada”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 19 June 2021 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0766>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

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