Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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(t., from the Pers. pādis̲h̲āh , probably influenced by Turkish basḳaḳ ), the highest official title of honour ( ʿunwān or laḳab ) in use in Turkey until the advent of the Republic and surviving for sometime after that in certain Muslim countries originally part of the Turkish empire (Egypt, ʿIrāḳ, Syria). It was always accompanied by the proper name, like the titles of nobility in Europe, but with this difference from the latter, that it was placed after the name (like the less important titles of bey and efendi ). In addition, being neither hereditary nor giving any rank to wives,…

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Deny, J., “Pas̲h̲a”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 30 October 2020 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0887>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

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