Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Pīs̲h̲kas̲h̲
(834 words)

(p.) as a general term designates a present, usually from an inferior to a superior. As a technical term it denotes a “regular” tax ( pīs̲h̲kas̲h̲-i mustamarrī ) and an ad hoc tax levied by rulers on provincial governors and others, and an ad hoc impost laid by governors and officials in positions of power on the population under their control. The offering of presents to rulers and others was known from early times (cf. Abu ’l-Faḍl Bayhaḳī, Tārīk̲h̲-i Bayhaḳī , ed. A.A. Fayyāḍ, Mas̲h̲had 1350 s̲h̲ /1971, 655, 679, 705, 734-5, 789, 815). With the proliferation of dues which took …

Cite this page
Lambton, A.K.S., “Pīs̲h̲kas̲h̲”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 18 September 2020 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_6130>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007



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