Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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(1,874 words)

, usually written thus in Arabic and Persian contexts, and pronounced tümen in Turkish and Mongolian ones, a term used in the eastern Islamic lands in mediaeval times with military, financial and administrative connotations.

The term appears to have entered Turkish from the Tokharian languages of what became Eastern or Chinese Turkestan, with the meaning of “10,000”, but may be of Chinese origin (see Sir Gerard Clauson, An etymological dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish, Oxford 1972, 507; G. Doerfer, Türkische und mongolische Elemente in Neupersischen , Wiesbaden 196…

Cite this page
Amitai, R. and Darley-Doran, R.E., “Tūmān”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 21 June 2021 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_7622>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

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