Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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(54,970 words)

I. History.

1. The pre-Islamic period: the first Turks in history and their languages.

Towards 540, on the northern fringes of China, the nomadic empire of the Z̲h̲ouan-z̲h̲ouan (proto-Mongols?) dominated the lands of Mongolia and some neighbouring zones. Its Ḳag̲h̲an or ruler had as his vassals notably the chiefs of two important tribal confederations, those of the Türks, in the northern Altai, and the equally Turkish-speaking o…

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Bazin L., Golden, P.B., Golden.P.B, Zürcher E.J, Andrews.P.A, Zieme P., Karamustafa A.T, Flemming Barbara, Ambros Edith G., Balim Çiğdem et al., “Turks”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 23 June 2021 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_1261>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

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