(5,312 words)

(a.), custom, customary law (also ʿāda , [q.v.]).

1. The status of custom in Islamic law

Custom was not one of the formal sources of law ( uṣūl , sing, aṣl ) in classical Islamic law. In practice, however, custom was frequently drawn on as a material source of law. Eventually, in the 16th century, it gained something close to formal recognition; but before that time attempts were made to incorporate custom in the law without granting it formal recognition, particularly (but not only) by Ḥanafī jurists.

Abū Yūsuf (d. 182/798), an early leader of the Ḥanafī school, was inclined to …

Cite this page
Libson, G. and Stewart, F.H., “ʿUrf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 10 December 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_1298>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

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