(563 words)

(a., pl. awrād ), denotes set, supererogatory personal devotions observed at specific times, usually at least once during the day and once again at night. Abū Ḥāmid al-G̲h̲azālī (d. 505/1111 [q.v.]), writing shortly before the establishment of formal Ṣūfī orders, designated as awrād seven divisions of the day and five of the night for the performance of devotions (both obligatory and supererogatory) by any pious Muslim ( Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn , Book X, Kitāb tartīb al-awrād wa-tafṣīl iḥyāʾ al-layl , Cairo 1358/1939, i, 339-73). The term often has referred to Ṣūfī devotions, where a wird is …

Cite this page
Denny, F.M., “Wird”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 15 November 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_7914>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

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