al-Bīrūnī
(3,651 words)

Abū Rayḥān (or al-Rayḥān) Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Bīrūnī (also spelt al-Bērūnī; b. 362/973, d. c.440/1048) was one of the most accomplished scientists of the Middle Ages, active in nearly all branches of science. His name was derived from Persian bīrūn (or bērūn, lit., outskirts). We do not know to what the name refers, although some connect it with a place near the southern end of the Aral Sea (now part of Uzbekistan). Although his mother tongue was a Khwārazmian dialect of Persian, all his books were written in Arabic, the language of s…

Cite this page
Yano, Michio, “al-Bīrūnī”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Consulted online on 15 November 2018 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_25350>
First published online: 2013
First print edition: 9789004252684, 2013, 2013-3



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