Gulf States
(4,500 words)

1. Arabic and minority languages

A number of languages in addition to Arabic are used in all the modern Gulf States:

Persian. Persian is widely understood throughout the Persian Gulf, though perhaps less than was the case fifty years ago. Older immigrants of Iranian origin, born in Iran in the first half of the 20th century, have retained th…

Cite this page
Clive Holes, “Gulf States”, in: Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard, Rudolf de Jong. Consulted online on 19 November 2018 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004177024, 20090831

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