Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics

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(3,194 words)

Ḥāl (mostly fem.) is literally the ‘state’ or ‘situation’ of someone or something subject to change. The plural ʾaḥwāl is used as a plural of multitude, hence ‘circumstances’ (Lane II, 675). Ḥāl as a grammatical term is used for an adverbial expression or a nominal or verbal phrase denoting the circumstances of either the subject or object (ḏū l-ḥāl or ṣāḥib al-ḥāl), or both, of the act taking place. It is complementary to the sentence and answers the question ‘how?’, hence the English denotation of ‘circumstantial’ accusative or circumstantial clause. Ḥāl is rendered variously as “d…

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Monique Bernards, “Ḥāl”, in: Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, Managing Editors Online Edition: Lutz Edzard, Rudolf de Jong. Consulted online on 12 August 2022 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1570-6699_eall_EALL_SIM_vol2_0013>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004177024, 20090831

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