Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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Academies (shuyuan) existed already in pre-modern China. They first appeared in the Tang period, during which the most famous institution of this type, the Hanlin Academy, was established. In the Song and Yuan periods their number steadily increased and reached its zenith during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The traditional academies were run partly on a private basis, partly by local authorities, and served both teaching and research. In the academies scholars were educated, libraries established…

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Staiger, Brunhild, “Academies”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 05 December 2022 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

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