Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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(1,950 words)

In imperial China, the control over the bureaucratic apparatus was in the hands of the Censorate. Its control agencies reached down to the county level, which was the lowest level at which central state power was represented. Below the county level, the population was supervised by a sub-bureaucracy of the county administration and by self-administrative agencies (local government). This pattern has changed in the People's Republic, due to the fact that all areas of the state, the economy, and of society are subject to broad political control by the a…

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Heilmann, Sebastian, “Control”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 26 October 2021 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

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