Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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(1,634 words)

1. Republican Period (1912-1949)

China's first consumer cooperative was founded at Beijing University in 1918. However, the idea of cooperatives was already familiar to Chinese intellectuals through their contact with the West since the early twentieth century. Xue Xianzhou (1871-1927), for example, had lived in Germany between 1905 and 1911 and had been…

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Hana, Corinna, “Cooperatives”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 01 February 2023 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

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