Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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China has a tradition of government interference with and control of enterprises. In the 19th century, the first modern enterprises were set up by high officials of the Qing dynasty and by Chinese overseas. Western, Japanese, and Chinese enterprises developed under difficult conditions in the first half of the 20th century, because of the heavy exactions of competing warlords and the Guomindang government, insecurity, and wars. After 1949, the Communist government froze the assets of most foreign and Chinese companies, and took…

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Vermeer, Eduard B., “Enterprises”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 08 February 2023 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

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