Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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(4,881 words)

1. 1860-1918

During the "long" 19th century until World War I, the structures and changes in international politics largely shaped the German-Chinese relations. The rivalry between the European colonial powers and China's increasing loss of territorial and economic self-determination were the dominant factors.

Although German missionaries and merchants occasionally came in contact with China since the 17th century (Christianity), German countries established formal relations with China only at…

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Mühlhahn, Klaus, Leutner, Mechthild and Trampedach, Tim, “Germany”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 06 February 2023 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

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