Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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Higher Education
(2,429 words)

China has possessed institutions of higher education as early as antiquity. They carried different names, such as Guozijian, Guozixue, and Taixue, depending on the respective period. The first university was the Taixue, founded during the Han dynasty in 124 BCE. After the Ming dynasty, there was only the Imperial University, or Guozijian. However, with regard to vocational training, the universities were not nearly as important as the state examination system. In the wake of the Self-Strengthening Movement during the 1860s, a number of schools were established that spec…

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Otsuka, Yutaka, “Higher Education”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 29 January 2023 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

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