Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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(2,178 words)

It was a variety of very different social groups which have played a decisive role in China's industrialization since the 19th century. In the beginning, industrialization was driven largely by merchants and those social groups which had a history of engaging in textile, mining, ammunition, and porcelain production, partly with the bureaucracy's support. Chinese manufacturers operated under eco…

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Klenner, Wolfgang, “Industrialization”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 06 December 2023 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

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