Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

Get access

International Relations up to 1949
(4,144 words)

1. The Period before the Opium War

Throughout its history, China's relationship to the outside world was determined by two factors: its geographic situation and its cultural tradition. Geographically, China is surrounded by high mountains, deserts, and oceans. Thus nature gives it an insular character which has not been without influence on its historical devel…

Cite this page
Kuo-Chi, Lee, “International Relations up to 1949”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 05 March 2024 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

▲   Back to top   ▲