Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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(2,119 words)

In traditional China the issue of labor was characterized by a high concentration of property owing to the agrarian character of the country. The marginal non-agrarian sector consisted of handicrafts, trade and a largely underdeveloped industry. There were exceptions to this rule in the coastal regions where since the end of the 19th century large areas were in foreign hands. I…

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Hebel, Jutta, “Labor”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 23 September 2023 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

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