Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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Market and Competition
(2,520 words)

The Chinese economy had a mainly agrarian character until after the middle of the 20th century. Besides agriculture, there existed well-developed handicrafts. After the Opium Wars, imported and industrial goods penetrated the market, but their influence remained limited mostly to the Treaty Ports which were opened to foreign traders and investors, to regions along the great rivers, and to Manchuria.

Market organization, production, and division of labor in p…

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Fischer, Doris, “Market and Competition”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 07 December 2023 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

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