Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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Military Advisors
(1,317 words)

Sun Yatsen (Sun Yixian) had made efforts to obtain direct help and advice from Germany as early as World War I. Famous generals of the Reichswehr (among them Wetzell and Seeckt) were contacted and asked to re-organize the Guomindang (GMD) forces. These contacts were accompanied by negotiations with German industrialists, who were supposed to provide the heavy industry basis required for establishing a modern army. However, political instability and a lack of funds on the Chinese side, as well as fears of an Allied intervention on th…

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Martin, Bernd, “Military Advisors”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 29 February 2024 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

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