Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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Ming Dynasty
(2,838 words)

The Ming dynasty (1368-1644) was China's last dynasty under Chinese rule. The Yuan dynasty and the Qing dynasty were led by Mongols and Manchus respectively. At the time, these ethnic groups were considered foreigners even though today they belong to China's national minorities. After the Mongols had been expelled from China, they continued to pose a threat along the northern border. Dur…

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Littrup, Leif, “Ming Dynasty”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 28 November 2023 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

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