Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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In order to prevent its downfall, the Qing dynasty in 1905 initiated a constitutional reform. Official delegations were sent to Japan and Western Europe to investigate the legal foundations of a parliament. In 1909, assemblies (ziyiju) were established at provincial level. A year later, the Provisional National Assembly (zizhengyuan) was convened in Beijing, consisting of 100 delegates nominated by the emperor and 100 dele…

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Sandschneider, Eberhard and Junhua, Zhang, “Parliaments”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 05 March 2024 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

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