Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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Private Schools
(1,124 words)

The history of private-run educational institutions in China dates back to the earliest periods during which canonic education attempts were made, i.e. back to the late Zhou period (Spring and Autumn period, 770 BCE to 481 BCE). In this regard, a variety of different organizational forms of "scholastic" facilities can be referred to as sishu (translatable as "private teachings" in the widest sense), even though these organizational forms can in turn be divided into other various categories, depending on the social-structural background and religiou…

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Henze, Jürgen and Mok, Ka-ho, “Private Schools”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 09 February 2023 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

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