Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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Three Principles of the People
(1,421 words)

The Three Principles of the People (Sanminzhuyi) are the teachings of Sun Yatsen (Sun Yixian), which he developed in cooperation with close confidants. Their written version was finalized in a series of lectures Sun gave in 1924, following the reorganization of the Guomindang (GMD).

Sun first laid out his ideas systematically as early as 1905, after the founding of the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance (Zhongguo geming tongmenghui), formulating in general terms his Three Principles of the People. These consist of the doctrine of nationhood (minzuzhuyi), the doctrine of people's w…

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Schneider, Axel, “Three Principles of the People”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 28 November 2023 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

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