Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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Tongzhi Restoration
(1,611 words)

When the Xianfeng Emperor died in Rehe on August 22, 1861, the empire seemed close to its demise because of the domestic revolution and of China's surrender to the foreign armies. Eight aristocratic Manchus, favorites of the emperor, formed a regency council for the emperor's only son, who succeeded to his father's throne at the age of five. Prince Gong, a brother of the deceased, helped the two empress dowagers Ci'an (the widow) and Cixi (the emperor's concubine and mother of the new ruler) to …

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Bastid-Bruguière, Marianne, “Tongzhi Restoration”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 09 December 2023 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

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