Brill’s Encyclopedia of China

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(1,992 words)

Following the European expansion since the 16th century, the establishment of a worldwide trade regime largely dominated by European standards, and the imperialistic advances of Western powers, which became increasingly manifest during the second half of the 19th century, each and every non-Western civilization faced the question of how to respond to the globalization of the Western way of life and philosophy. China is no exception to this rule, although - in contrast to India, for example - China had been a massive colonial power itself, at least since the beginning of the Qing dynasty.…

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Lackner, Michael, “Westernization”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 05 December 2022 <>
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018

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