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Counterfactuals, Concessives, and Hypotheticals, Modern
(2,659 words)

Counterfactuals, concessives and hypotheticals are three semantically related but different constructions. Hypotheticals, also known as conditionals, typically involve an adverbial clause, often referred to as the antecedent or protasis clause and a consequent or apodosis main clause. In some cases, a verb complement is used to express a hypothetical world, as the complement of the verb xīwàng 希望 ‘wish’. This article focuses on the former type. The antecedent clause of a Chinese hypothetical is typically marked by a discontinuous constituent rúguǒde huà 如果 … 的話 ‘if’ or yàoshìde …

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Jo-Wang LIN, “Counterfactuals, Concessives, and Hypotheticals, Modern”, in: Encyclopedia of Chinese Language and Linguistics, General Editor Rint Sybesma. Consulted online on 28 March 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2210-7363_ecll_COM_00000108>
First published online: 2015

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