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Dualism, in contrast to monism, assumes that two antagonistic principles underlie existence. It found classic expression in Zoroastrianism, in some tendencies in early Judaism, and in Gnosticism and its aftermath. In milder form it also appears implicitly in the worldviews of prescientific cultures. A characteristic of modern scientific culture is to find in such hostile factors as disasters and illnesses a challenge to human knowledge and ability. Prescientific cultures, however, push such anomalies into the realm of th…

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Kippenberg, Hans G., “Dualism”, in: Encyclopedia of Christianity Online. Consulted online on 14 August 2022 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2211-2685_eco_D460>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004169678, 20080512

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