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Jesus
(3,356 words)

1. Sources

The sources for an account of Jesus, both secular and Christian, are complex.

1.1. Ancient histories contain no direct references. The so-called testimonium Flavianum (Josephus Ant. 18.63–64) refers to Jesus as “a wise man, if indeed one ought to call him a man.… He was the Messiah.” This passage, however, seems at least to have undergone Christian revision. In his account of the execution of James, Josephus (Ant. 20.200) identifies James as …

Cite this page
Holtz, Traugott, “Jesus”, in: Encyclopedia of Christianity Online. Consulted online on 07 December 2021 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2211-2685_eco_J71>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004169678, 20080512



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