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C. Wolff (1679–1754) brought the term “monism” into use in the academic philosophy of the German Enlightenment. It describes theories that trace all things back to one substance (e.g., the rational pantheism of B. Spinoza [1632–77]; Spinozism) versus those that do not (e.g., the system of R. Descartes [1596–1650], which began with two substances—the res cogitans, “thinking substance,” and the res extensa, “extended substance”; Cartesianism). The opposite concept is dualism. German idealism did not use the term “monism,” but it came into general use after G. W. F…

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Klein, Hans-Dieter, “Monism”, in: Encyclopedia of Christianity Online. Consulted online on 24 May 2022 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2211-2685_eco_M805>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004169678, 20080512

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