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Talmud
(1,140 words)

1. Origin

The Talmud (Heb. lmd, “learn, teach”), strictly talmûd tôrâ, “study/teaching of the Torah,” is the main work of rabbinic literature. It consists of the Mishnah (the earliest authoritative rendering of Jewish oral laws, mostly in Hebrew) and the Gemara (Aram. gemar, “study, complete,” a rabbinic commentary on the Mishnah, largely in Aramaic).

As rabbinic learning (Rabbi, Rabbinism) developed differently in its two geographic centers, the teaching tradition gave rise to two dif…

Cite this page
Schlüter, Margarete, “Talmud”, in: Encyclopedia of Christianity Online. Consulted online on 20 November 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2211-2685_eco_T.7>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004169678, 20080512



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