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Agricultural implements
(883 words)

Prior to the mechanization of agriculture, which commenced in Central Europe in the middle of the 19th century, agricultural labor in the fields and on farms was shaped by the use of agricultural implements. With the exception of tillage (plows, harrows, rollers), for which farmers relied primarily on draft animals (Horse; Cattle; Donkey) peasant housework and daily labor [3] in the Early modern period were carried out by hand, without the use of machines, and without wind or water power. These latter technologies were known and had been in use in mills since the High Middle Ages, b…

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Meiners, Uwe, “Agricultural implements”, in: Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online, Editors of the English edition: Graeme Dunphy, Andrew Gow. Original German Edition: Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. Im Auftrag des Kulturwissenschaftlichen Instituts (Essen) und in Verbindung mit den Fachherausgebern herausgegeben von Friedrich Jaeger. Copyright © J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag GmbH 2005–2012. Consulted online on 08 December 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2352-0272_emho_SIM_020649>
First published online: 2015
First print edition: 20160321

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