A bond (also called a debenture, loan note, or fixed-interest security) is a long-term loan (Loan for consumption [mutuum]) given to the issuer by the buyers (holders) of partial debentures (denominated in round sums). The bond (or “obligation”; Latin obligatio) is represented by a document in which the issuer promises the creditor a sum of money with regular interest (debenture bond).
In the late Middle Ages, the cities of northern Italy were already making their citizens provide them with forced loans. Such loans were frequently not liquidated but co…
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Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online
, Editors of the English edition: Graeme Dunphy, Andrew Gow. Original German Edition: Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. Im Auftrag des Kulturwissenschaftlichen Instituts (Essen) und in Verbindung mit den Fachherausgebern herausgegeben von Friedrich Jaeger. Copyright © J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag GmbH 2005–2012.
Consulted online on 17 October 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2352-0272_emho_SIM_016867>
First published online: 2015
First print edition: 20160907