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Human/citizens’ rights, declarations of
(2,467 words)

1. Legal and political significance

Freedom and equality were the key concepts of the human and civil rights proclaimed during the revolutionary upheaval of the 18th and 19th centuries in a concerted attack on the hierarchical society of estates and absolutist rule (Absolutism; Estates, society of; Revolution). Wi…

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Bader-Zaar, Birgitta, “Human/citizens’ rights, declarations of”, in: Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online, Editors of the English edition: Graeme Dunphy, Andrew Gow. Original German Edition: Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. Im Auftrag des Kulturwissenschaftlichen Instituts (Essen) und in Verbindung mit den Fachherausgebern herausgegeben von Friedrich Jaeger. Copyright © J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag GmbH 2005–2012. Consulted online on 11 December 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2352-0272_emho_COM_023940>
First published online: 2015
First print edition: 20180915

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