Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online

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1. Iron ore reserves

Iron ore fields are found throughout Europe, as well as nearby in North Africa, Jordan, Turkey, and elsewhere. During antiquity and the Middle Ages, reserves exploited were usually those that were easily accessible, such as lodes that reached the surface or fields of bog iron ore (precipitates of iron ore just under the vegetation layer of the soil).

Iron production favored mineral deposits with a high concentration of minerals. These provided the raw material for t…

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Bingener, Andreas, “Iron”, in: Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online, Editors of the English edition: Graeme Dunphy, Andrew Gow. Original German Edition: Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. Im Auftrag des Kulturwissenschaftlichen Instituts (Essen) und in Verbindung mit den Fachherausgebern herausgegeben von Friedrich Jaeger. Copyright © J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag GmbH 2005–2012. Consulted online on 02 April 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2352-0272_emho_COM_018649>
First published online: 2015
First print edition: 20190124

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