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The Russian otkhodniki (literally “departers”) in the context of serfdom (which was legally abolished in Russia only in 1861) denoted people who were allowed to leave the estate to which they were bound for a fixed period (generally between one and four months), to work elsewhere. Their lord issued them with a pass to this effect [4. 335]. Although serfdom as such presented an impediment to geographical mobility, this time-limited form of migration constituted an exception (cf. Serfdom 4.). Various forms of peasant bondage in Russia from the late 15th century de…

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Lucassen, Jan and Lucassen, Leo, “Otkhodniki”, in: Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online, Editors of the English edition: Graeme Dunphy, Andrew Gow. Original German Edition: Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. Im Auftrag des Kulturwissenschaftlichen Instituts (Essen) und in Verbindung mit den Fachherausgebern herausgegeben von Friedrich Jaeger. Copyright © J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag GmbH 2005–2012. Consulted online on 24 February 2024 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2352-0272_emho_SIM_025181>
First published online: 2015
First print edition: 20200721

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