The regional and transcontinental livestock trade of the 15th-19th centuries is attested by old drovers’ roads and place names like Oxford, Ochsenhausen, Ochsenfurt, and Ochsenzoll. The term “oxen” can, however, be misleading, for some herds, notably those of Hungarian cattle that were exported to northern Italy in the 16th century, mostly consisted of three-year-old cows and bulls [7. 46, 51, 57]. Contemporaries, however, used the term “oxen” in an extended sense.
In the 18th century, according to Zedler’s Universal-Lexikon, “a great trade” in oxen was conducted in…
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“Oxen, trade in”, in:
Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online
, Editors of the English edition: Graeme Dunphy, Andrew Gow. Original German Edition: Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. Im Auftrag des Kulturwissenschaftlichen Instituts (Essen) und in Verbindung mit den Fachherausgebern herausgegeben von Friedrich Jaeger. Copyright © J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag GmbH 2005–2012.
Consulted online on 18 October 2021 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2352-0272_emho_SIM_024926>
First published online: 2015
First print edition: 20200721