Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online

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(1,023 words)

1. Introduction

Modern ministries as superordinate government authorities organized according to the principle of specialty or “portfolio” and structured in a hierarchical, bureaucratic way developed in the European states around the turn of the 19th century, superseding government by collegial council committees (Council [administrative]) or by the secretaries of state directly appointed as aides to the ruler in England/Britain and France since the 16th century. The responsib…

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Babel, Rainer, “Portfolio”, in: Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online, Editors of the English edition: Graeme Dunphy, Andrew Gow. Original German Edition: Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. Im Auftrag des Kulturwissenschaftlichen Instituts (Essen) und in Verbindung mit den Fachherausgebern herausgegeben von Friedrich Jaeger. Copyright © J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag GmbH 2005–2012. Consulted online on 02 June 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2352-0272_emho_COM_026647>
First published online: 2015
First print edition: 20210107

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