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Russia, societies in
(6,995 words)

1. Ways of life and social structures

color::1.1. Autonomous spheres

The foundation of Russian society during the entire early modern period was thepeasants. In the 18th century, in the center of the empire around Moscow they mostly farmed according to the rules of three-field crop rotation; to the north and east, they traversed the forests, clearing them for agriculture; in the south and southwest, they worked so-c…

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Nolte, Hans-Heinrich and Marasinova, Elena, “Russia, societies in”, in: Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online, Editors of the English edition: Graeme Dunphy, Andrew Gow. Original German Edition: Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. Im Auftrag des Kulturwissenschaftlichen Instituts (Essen) und in Verbindung mit den Fachherausgebern herausgegeben von Friedrich Jaeger. Copyright © J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag GmbH 2005–2012. Consulted online on 02 June 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2352-0272_emho_COM_026860>
First published online: 2015
First print edition: 20210601

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