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Shia, Shi‘ite
(3,824 words)

1. Transformation and clericalization

1.1. Fundamentals

The confessional division of the Muslim community into Sunnis (Sunni) and Shi‘tes over the question of who should take over the religious and political leadership of Muslims after the death of the Prophet Muḥammad (died 632) goes back to the first decades of Islamic history (Islam). The assumption of power of the first three caliphs, Abū Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uṯmān was countered by their opponents – ul…

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Brunner, Rainer, “Shia, Shi‘ite”, in: Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online, Editors of the English edition: Graeme Dunphy, Andrew Gow. Original German Edition: Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. Im Auftrag des Kulturwissenschaftlichen Instituts (Essen) und in Verbindung mit den Fachherausgebern herausgegeben von Friedrich Jaeger. Copyright © J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag GmbH 2005–2012. Consulted online on 26 September 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2352-0272_emho_COM_027057>
First published online: 2015
First print edition: 20180208

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