Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online

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(1,417 words)

1. Definition

In the early modern period, socage included the totality of compulsory work that subjects (mostly peasants) were obligated to do for various superiors. The German term Fron, like Scharwerk, was used primarily in southern Germany (in the northeast, a bailiff, executioner, or knacker was called a Fron); east of the Elbe, people spoke of Hand- und Spanndienste (services rendered by hand and team), especially plowing and services at court. I…

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Münch, Ernst, “Socage”, in: Encyclopedia of Early Modern History Online, Editors of the English edition: Graeme Dunphy, Andrew Gow. Original German Edition: Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. Im Auftrag des Kulturwissenschaftlichen Instituts (Essen) und in Verbindung mit den Fachherausgebern herausgegeben von Friedrich Jaeger. Copyright © J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag GmbH 2005–2012. Consulted online on 21 September 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2352-0272_emho_COM_019518>
First published online: 2015
First print edition: 20180208

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