The prayer formula Kol Nidre (Aram. kol nidre, “all vows”) contains the annulment of vows. Since the Middle Ages its recitation has introduced the day of atonement Yom Kippur in Ashkenazic congregations. Due to the danger of misinterpretation as a general release from obligations the Kol Nidre was an object of internal Jewish criticism and served as a welcome exhibition for antisemites. Due to its incisive melody it has been the subject of numerous modern musical settings.