Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World

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(1,315 words)

Migration between the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa was a constant feature of medieval Jewish life, waxing and waning depending upon local political and economic conditions as well as the attitude of the ruling dynasties in both locales toward their Jewish subjects. Jews from Spain sought a refuge in Morocco as early as the time of the Visigothic persecutions in the seventh century. During the era of the Almohads (twelfth century), Jews in both countries again sought refuge in flight, crossing back and forth across the narrow straits separating the two land…

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Jane Gerber, “Toshavim”, in: Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World, Executive Editor Norman A. Stillman. Consulted online on 01 December 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1878-9781_ejiw_COM_0021450>
First published online: 2010

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