Varna is a major Bulgarian port city on the Black Sea. The country’s third-largest city after Sofia and Plovdiv, Varna was named Odessos in ancient times and Stalin from 1949 to 1956. It was captured by the Ottomans in 1399 and remained under Turkish suzerainty until 1878. By making Varna one of their four main strongholds in Bulgaria, along with Shumla, Silistre, and Ruse, the Ottomans contributed significantly to the city’s economic development.
Cite this pageYitzchak Kerem, “Varna”, in: Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World, Executive Editor Norman A. Stillman. Consulted online on 03 December 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1878-9781_ejiw_SIM_0021950>
First published online: 2010
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