Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures

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Civil Society and Democracy Ideologies: Turkey
(1,759 words)

It is widely argued that civil society flourished in Turkey in the 1980s. Social scientists estimate that there were approximately 60,000 associations by the late 1990s and that women's organizations constituted 0.3 percent of all non-governmental organizations (NGOs) (Kalaycıoğlu 2002, Pusch 2003). In 2000, there were 179 registered women's NGOs (Pusch 2000, 483). Women's activism in th…

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Arat, Yeşim, “Civil Society and Democracy Ideologies: Turkey”, in: Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures, General Editor Suad Joseph. Consulted online on 24 March 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1872-5309_ewic_EWICCOM_0070c>
First published online: 2009

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